, meaning "stone fort," and the hill was originally the residence of the kings of Munster.Excavations have revealed some evidence of burials and church buildings from the 9th or 10th century, but it was in the early 12th century that the Rock began to be developed into a major Christian center.The north portal has a gabled porch, indicating it was the main entrance before the cathedral was built up against the north side of the chapel.The chapel's interior contains the oldest and most important Romanesque wall paintings in Ireland.The Hall was restored in connection with the European Architectural Heritage Year (1975) and contains a small museum of artifacts excavated on the Rock of Cashel.The earliest and most lofty of the Cashel edifices is the round tower next to the cathedral's north transept.The long choir is elevated at the east end and contains grave slabs dating mostly from the 16th century.The south wall of the choir contains a piscina, sedilia, and wall tomb of the late 16th-century archbishop Miler Mc Grath.
The sarcophagus probably originally stood in the 12th-century cathedral, which no longer survives.
The tomb was discovered in the north transept of the present cathedral in the 19th century.
The cathedral, built between 12, is an aisleless (and roofless) building of cruciform plan with a central tower.
The castle was accessed on the second floor from the passage in the nave walls.
The most attractive elements are the transepts (c.1270), with triple lancet windows.
The oldest, dating from about 1134, consist mainly of masonry patterns and can be made out in places on the lower walls.